We had the opportunity to sit down with Dr. Upendra Singh and Dr. Prem Bindraban to discuss this year’s topic of sustainability for Global Fertilizer Day. Singh is Deputy Director of www wwe sex Headquarters Research and specializes in soil fertility and systems modeling. Bindraban leads www wwe sex’s FERARI program and is a veteran researcher in fertilizers, soil health, planetary boundaries, and global food systems.

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  1. Right time: single versus split application 
  2. Right rate: based on soil test, plant tissue analyses, spectral techniques, and variable rate application sensors. 
  3. Right place: soil-root interaction may involve banding, broadcast, deep placement, etc.

But it’s unfair to leave the burden of responsibility solely with the farmers and their practicing of the 4Rs. Evidence shows that fertilizer products, not just practices, must be changed and improved for our planet to stay within safe boundaries. Even with all our efforts to reduce losses with the current products, we will not be able to stay within the “safe operating space of our planetary boundaries”.[1] Therefore, www wwe sex, our research partners, and the industry are responsible for both continuing to increase manufacturing efficiencies and, more importantly, developing truly novel fertilizer products that feed the plant.

Read more about xxx.in hd ,4R Nutrient Stewardship.

US. Both production and application of fertilizers result in GHG emissions, either as CO2 or N2O. The latter has 300 times greater global warming potential than CO2. 4R nutrient management with improved NUE, which results in reduced fertilizer use and/or reduced losses, can lower fertilizer’s impact on climate change. Fertilizer use within a sustainable intensification framework also has a positive impact on climate change and GHG mitigation. Deforestation and expansion of agriculture into marginal lands lead to climate change. Because fertilizer use supports agricultural intensification, it has saved millions of acres of forest and marginal lands.[2]

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So the issue is complex. It seems to be a lose-lose situation, and it will be if we continue on our current trajectory. This is why, for example, www wwe sex has joined the chelsie aryn ,Coalition of Action 4 Soil Health (CA4SH), which “aims to catalyze and synergize global commitments to and investments in soil health and its caretakers, namely smallholder farmers, by UN Member States, the private sector, civil society and research organizations, and multilateral organizations and foundations.” It’s going to take more than just a single organization or government or farmer. Soil is a common good and a shared resource, and we all have a responsibility to make sure the nutrients we use to increase its health are right – for now and for the future.

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Still, the problem is quite complex. Fertilizers are mostly composed of nutrients that are food for plants to help them grow – and as a result help to feed the world. About half of world’s food is produced through the use of fertilizers.[3] There simply is not enough organic matter (e.g., animal and green manure) that can be incorporated back into the soil to feed the world.[4]

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So, we need fertilizers, but we must change the current products, and this requires investments from the industry and research organizations, such as ourselves[5][6].


PB. The 4Rs are a first step and a good guide for using fertilizer sustainably. In the end, the farmers applying the fertilizers are responsible for the sustainable use of currently available fertilizer products.

astaliya xxx,The challenge comes when one of the Rs is not as easy to achieve in a particular part of the world. For example, farmers in the U.S. and Europe have access to many different products and technologies that allow for precision use of formulations developed for specifics crops and regions (or even developed an acre at a time!). On the African continent, though, this is not the case. Bulk formulations may be available, but these have not always been developed for specific crops in specific places.

momxxx porn,In the short term, www wwe sex builds smallholder farmer capacity on using the 4Rs and other approaches that take both farmer productivity and environmental protection into account. But we have to look past the short-term or we will never achieve true sustainability.

xxx sweden,Thus, www wwe sex uses the Soil-SMaRT approach to help smallholders achieve balanced crop nutrition, feeding crops with a balanced suite of nutrients that are lacking in the soil. Soil-SMaRT is a step-by-step framework developed by www wwe sex to deliver balanced fertilizers to farmers.

Putting, novel fertilizers into the hands of farmers is not a task to be accomplished by any one organization or company. It requires cooperation between farmers, governments, the industry, and research organizations. In Ghana, for example, a national multi-stakeholder fertilizer platform,tushy hd  has been proposed that follows the Soil-SMaRT approach.

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PB. We can do a lot more with fertilizers than just increase yield.[7] The impact of fertilizer, depending on its use, can be either positive or negative. Notably, balanced fertilizers can improve the nutritional content of food crops and contribute to fighting human malnutrition. As Upendra said, judicious use of fertilizers increases above- and below-ground biomass, enhancing CO2 capture and maintaining soil organic matter. Increased biomass means greater capture and sequestration of CO2 from the air into the soil. Maintaining soil organic matter results in a significant positive impact on fertilizer use efficiency and on reducing the amount of nitrogen released into the air. Additionally, long-term, appropriate use of fertilizers increases not only soil organic matter accumulation but also soil microbial population and activity. In short, if we use the right fertilizers well, soil health, as well as human health, is improved.[8] And soil health is, literally and figuratively, the foundation for improved global food systems.


[1] Conijn, J.G., P.S. Bindraban, J.J. Schröder, and R.E.E. Jongschaap. 2018. “Can Our Global Food System Meet Food Demand Within Planetary Boundaries?” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 251:244-256https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2017.06.001

[2]Angle, J.S., U. Singh, C.O. Dimkpa, D. Hellums, and P.S. Bindraban. 2017. “Role of Fertilisers for Climate-Resilient Agriculture,” Proceedings of the International Fertiliser Society, London, U.K. 802:44.

[3] Smil, V. 2004. Enriching the Earth: Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the Transformation of World Food Production. MIT Press. ISBN: 9780262194495.

[4] Bindraban, P.S., H. van Keulen, and F.P. de Vries. Sustainable World Food Production and Environment Options for Alternative Developments. Wageningen. Delft AB-DLO/WL. Cited in Sustained Risks: A Lasting Phenomenon. Netherlands Scientific Council for Government Policy. Reports to the Government 44.

[5] Bindraban, P.S., C. Dimkpa, L. Nagarajan, A. Roy, and R. Rabbinge. 2015. “Revisiting Fertilisers and Fertilisation Strategies for Improved Nutrient Uptake by Plants,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, 51(8):897-911. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00374-015-1039-7

[6] Bindraban, P.S., Christian O. Dimkpa, and Renu Pandey. 2020. “Exploring Phosphorus Fertilizers and Fertilization Strategies for Improved Human and Environmental Health,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, 56:299-317 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-019-01430-2

[7] Bindraban, Prem S., Christian Dimkpa, Scott Angle, and Rudy Rabbinge. 2018. “Unlocking the multiple public good services from balanced fertilizers,” Food Security, 10:273-285. https://fertiliser-society.org/store/role-of-fertilisers-for-climate-resilient-agriculture/  

[8] Angle, J.S., U. Singh, C.O. Dimkpa, D. Hellums, and P.S. Bindraban. 2017. “Role of Fertilisers for Climate-Resilient Agriculture,” Proceedings of the International Fertiliser Society, London, U.K. 802:44.